unknown@wiki 【EC】Participle

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A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle, such as:

Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline.
Children introduced to music early develop strong intellectual skills.
Having been a gymnast, Lynn knew the importance of exercise.

Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.

Singing softly, the audience was captivated by Carmen's voice.
Singing softly, Carmen captivated the audience.

Dancing gracefully, the Guest of Honor was charmed by the ballet dancers.
Dancing gracefully, the ballet dancers charmed the Guest of Honor.

Bemused and surprised, the groom did not give the bride any choice but to dance.
Bemused and surprised, the bride did not have any choice but to dance with the groom.

Points to remember:
1. A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.

2. A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).

3. Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.

4. A participial phrase is set off with commas when it: a) comes at the beginning of a sentence, b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element, or c) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.

//participial: like participle: having the form or function of a verb that can be used as both adjective and verb
//participe: form of verb: a form of a verb that is used to form complex tenses, as are "loving" and "loved" in English, and may also be used as an adjective
//captivate: enchant somebody: to attract and hold somebody's attention by charm or other pleasing or irresistible features

// Verbals
// gerunds, infinitives and participles

//verb :word indicating action or state: a word used to show that an action is taking place or to indicate the existence of a state or condition, or the part of speech to which such a word belongs

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.

However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns.

Two types of Participles:

1. Present participles end in -ing.

2. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.

The captivating singer is mesmerizing the audience.

The captivating singer is mesmerizing the audience.

The charming ballet dancers danced their way to the Guest of Honor's approval.

The burning bush scared the tourists.

I think sky diving is a very exhilirating experience.

Bemused and surprised, the bride did not have any choice but to dance with the groom.


The comedian we saw last night really (amused) us.

do u think this "amused" is a verb or a participle?


Hello, Pau. Thanks for today's lecture.
I asked an American friend on messenger about below sentence.

"The comedian we saw last night really (amused) us."

and he said,
"I think Merrimar-Webster's dictionary says its a verb and perhaps your teacher is confused because participles mean the word is like a verb and an adjective but amuse is a verb.

I checked many websites in Japanese and I still think this is a verb and not a particle.
"I was amused."
In this sentence, "amused" can be a particle because it is functioned as an adjective.
But in the first sentence, "amused" is not used as an adjective so I don't think this is a particle.

I don't mean to argue with you but please remember we learned it was a verb and your explanation might confuse Japanese students. I just want you to be the best English teacher. :D

If you find good websites to explain about paticiples in English, let me know.

Thanks and see you soon!

Daisuke